Software Testing can be majorly classified into two categories:
- Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which the tester does not know the internal structure/design/implementation of the item being tested. Only the external design and structure are tested.
- White Box Testing is a software testing method in which the internal structure/design/implementation of the item being tested is known to the tester. Implementation and impact of the code are tested.
Black box testing and white box testing are two different approaches to software testing, and their differences are as follows:
Black box testing is a technique in which the internal workings of the software are not known to the tester. The tester only focuses on the input and output of the software. White box testing is a technique in which the tester knows the internal workings of the software and can test individual code snippets, algorithms, and methods.
Testing objectives: Black box testing mainly focuses on testing the software’s functionality, ensuring it meets the requirements and specifications. White box testing primarily focuses on ensuring that the internal code of the software is correct and efficient.
Knowledge level: Black box testing does not require any knowledge of the internal workings of the software and can be performed by testers unfamiliar with programming languages. White box testing requires knowledge of programming languages, software architecture, and design patterns.
Testing methods: To create test cases, black box testing uses methods like equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, and error guessing. White box testing uses methods like control flow testing, data flow testing, and statement coverage.
Scope: Black box testing is generally used for testing the software at the functional level. White box testing is used for testing the software at the unit, integration, and system levels.