A test case is a defined format for Software Testing required to check if a particular application/software is working or not. It consists of a specific set of conditions that need to be limited to test an application or software, i.e., in simpler terms, when conditions are checked, it contains if the resultant output meets with the expected output or not. A test case consists of parameters such as ID, condition, steps, input, desired result, result, status, and remarks.
Parameters of a Test Case:
Module Name: Subject or title that defines the functionality of the test.
Test Case Id: A unique identifier assigned to every single condition in a test case.
Tester Name: The name of the person carrying out the test.
Test scenario: The test scenario provides a brief description to the tester, as in giving a small overview to know what needs to be performed and the small features and components of the test.
Test Case Description: The condition must be checked for a given software. For example. Check if only numbers validation is working for an age input box.
Test Steps: Steps to be performed for the checking of the condition.
Prerequisite: The conditions must be fulfilled before the start of the test process.
Test Priority: As the name suggests, this gives priority to the test cases that had to be performed first or are more critical, and that could be performed later.
Test Data: The inputs to be taken while checking for the conditions.
Test Expected Result: The output which should be expected at the end of the test.
Test parameters: Parameters assigned to a particular test case.
Actual Result: The output that is displayed at the end.
Environment Information: The environment in which the test is being performed, such as the operating system, security information, the software name, software version, etc.
Status: The status of tests such as pass, fail, NA, etc.
Comments: Remarks on the test regarding the test for the betterment of the software.
When do we Write Test Cases?
Test cases are written in different situations:
Before development: Test cases could be written before the actual coding as that would help to identify the requirement of the product/software and carry out the test later when the product/software gets developed.
After development: Test cases are also written directly after coming up with a product/software or after developing the feature but before the launching of a product/software as needed to test the working of that particular feature.
During development: Test cases are sometimes written during the development time parallelly. So whenever a part of the module/software gets developed, it also gets tested.
Why Write Test Cases?
Test cases are one of the most critical aspects of software engineering, as they define how the testing would be carried out. Test cases are carried out for a straightforward reason: to check if the software works or not. There are many advantages of writing test cases:
To check whether the software meets customer expectations: Test cases help to check if a particular module/software is meeting the specified requirement or not.
To check software consistency with conditions: Test cases determine if a particular module/software works with a given set of conditions.
Narrow down software updates: Test cases help to narrow down the software needs and required updates.
Better test coverage: Test cases help ensure all possible scenarios are covered and documented.
For consistency in test execution: Test cases help to maintain consistency in test execution. A well-documented test case helps the tester to have a look at the test case and start testing the application.
Helpful during maintenance: Test cases are detailed, which makes them useful during the maintenance phase.
Test Case Management Tools
Test management tools help to manage the test cases. These tools are automated tools that decrease the time and effort of a tester compared to the traditional way. Some test case management tools include advanced dashboards, more accessible bug, and progress tracking as well as management, custom test case templates, integration of test cases, inviting guest testers, managing team requirements and plans, and much more.
Below are some of the test case management tools:
Testpad: Testpad is a simple tool that makes test case management more effortless. The software’s main motto is to find a bug that matters. A few features of Testpad include manual testing, reports of the test cases and software, dragging and dropping to make testing easier, inviting guest testers by email, building custom templates, and much more.
TestCaseLab: TestCaseLab is easily manageable for the test cases and could swiftly integrate them with bug trackers. The features of TestCaseLab include Custom test cases, Test Runs, Integrations of test cases, Test Plans, tags and priority for test cases, search by the name of test cases, description, tags, etc.
TestRail: TestRail is another platform that aims to make test case management easier; it streamlines the software testing processes and provides more visibility into QA. The essential features of TestRail include management for test cases, plans, and runs, more test coverage, real-time insights into the QA progress, etc.
TestLodge: TestLodge is a test case management tool that helps the entire team manage their requirements, test plans, test cases, and test runs all in one place and with no user limit. The essential features of TestLodge include Test Plans, Test Runs, a Dashboard, Test Suite, and many more.
Formal and Informal Test Case
Formal Test Cases: Formal test cases are test cases that follow the primary test case format. It contains the test case parameters such as conditions, ID, Module name, etc. Formal Test cases have set input data and expected results; they are performed as per the given order of steps.
Informal Test Cases: Informal test cases are test cases that don’t follow the primary test case format. In these, as the tests are performed, the test cases are written in real-time, then pre-writing them, and the input and expected results are not predefined as well.