What is Functional Testing

What is Functional Testing?

Functional Testing is a type of software testing that validates the software system against the applicable requirements/specifications. Available tests test each software application function by providing appropriate input and verifying the output against the Functional requirements.
Functional testing mainly involves black box testing and is not concerned about the application’s source code. This testing checks the User Interface. APIs, Database, Security, Client/Server communication, and other functionality of the Application Under Test. The testing can be done either manually or using automation.

Critical characteristics of functional testing include:

  1. Black-box Testing: Functional testing typically treats the software as a “black box, meaning the tester is not concerned with the internal code or structure of the application. Instead, the tester interacts with the software through its user interface or APIs to assess its behavior.
  2. Requirement-Based: Functional tests are designed based on the functional requirements of the software. Test cases are created to verify that the software functions following these requirements.
  3. Positive and Negative Testing: Functional testing includes positive testing (verifying that the software performs expected actions correctly) and negative testing (checking how the software handles unexpected or erroneous inputs and conditions).
  4. User Scenarios: Test cases in functional testing often mimic real-world user scenarios. Testers simulate actions that users might perform when using the software, such as data entry, menu navigation, and transaction processing.
  5. Data-Driven Testing: Functional testing can involve testing the software with various input data sets to assess how it responds under different conditions. This helps uncover issues related to data handling and processing.
  6. Integration Testing: In cases where the software interacts with external systems or components, functional testing can also include testing the integration points to ensure that data is exchanged correctly and that the interactions work as expected.

Common types of functional testing include:

  • Unit Testing: Focuses on testing individual functions or modules within the software to ensure that they perform as expected.
  • Integration Testing: Assesses how different components or modules work together when integrated into a more extensive system.
  • System Testing: Evaluate the complete software system to ensure it meets the specified functional requirements.
  • Acceptance Testing: Performed by end-users or stakeholders to determine whether the software meets their acceptance criteria and business requirements.
  • Regression Testing: Ensures that new changes or updates to the software have yet to introduce defects or issues in previously functioning features.
  • User Acceptance Testing (UAT): Performed by end-users to validate whether the software is ready for production and meets their needs.
Functional testing is essential to identify and rectify defects and issues that could negatively impact the software’s functionality and user experience. By performing functional testing, software development teams can ensure that the software operates as intended, is dependable, and delivers a positive user experience.

In this Software Testing Tutorial, we will learn what is functional testing along with real example. We will understand how functional testing important in software testing and other details about functional testing.